Inflation remains one of the enigmas in fundamental physics. While it is difficult to distinguish different inflation models, information contained in primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) offers a route to break the degeneracy. In galaxy surveys, the local type PNG is usually probed by measuring the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum on large scales, where cosmic variance and systematics are also large. Other types of PNG need bispectrum, which is computationally challenging and is contaminated by gravity. I will introduce a new approach to measuring PNG by using the reconstructed density field, a density field reversed to the initial conditions from late time. With the reconstructed density field, we can fit a new template at the field level, or compute a near optimal bispectrum estimator, to constrain PNG. By reconstructing the initial conditions, we remove the nonlinearity induced by gravity, which is a source of confusion when measuring PNG. Near optimal bispectrum estimator mitigates computational challenges. This new approach shows strong constraining power, offers an alternative way to the existing method with different systematics, and also follows organically the procedure of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) analysis in large galaxy surveys. I will present a reconstruction method using convolutional neural networks that significantly improves the performance of traditional reconstruction algorithms in the matter density field, which is crucial for more effectively probing PNG. This pipeline can enable new observational constraints on PNG from the ongoing Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) and Euclid surveys, as well as from upcoming surveys, such as that of the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope.
In quantum metrology, one of the major applications of quantum technologies, the ultimate precision of estimating an unknown parameter is often stated in terms of the Cramér-Rao bound. Yet, the latter is no longer guaranteed to carry an operational meaning in the regime where few measurement samples are obtained. We instead propose to quantify the quality of a metrology protocol by the probability of obtaining an estimate with a given accuracy. This approach, which we refer to as probably approximately correct (PAC) metrology, ensures operational significance in the finite-sample regime. The accuracy guarantees hold for any value of the unknown parameter, unlike the Cramér-Rao bound which assumes it is approximately known. We establish a strong connection to multi-hypothesis testing with quantum states, which allows us to derive an analogue of the Cramér-Rao bound which contains explicit corrections relevant to the finite-sample regime. We further study the asymptotic behavior of the success probability of the estimation procedure for many copies of the state and apply our framework to the example task of phase estimation with an ensemble of spin-1/2 particles. Overall, our operational approach allows the study of quantum metrology in the finite-sample regime and opens up a plethora of new avenues for research at the interface of quantum information theory and quantum metrology. TL;DR: In this talk, I will motivate why the Cramér-Rao bound might not always be the tool of choice to quantify the ultimate precision attainable in a quantum metrology task and give a (hopefully) intuitive introduction of how we propose to instead quantify it in a way that is valid in the single- and few-shot settings. We will together unearth a strong connection to quantum multi-hypothesis testing and conclude that there are many exiting and fundamental open questions in single-shot metrology!
In the last years, asymptotic symmetries have regained a lot of interest, and various extensions of the well known BMS group have been considered in the literature. Many charges associated to the diffeomorphisms of the sphere (superboosts and superrotations) have been proposed, but it has not been clear if these charges can be derived from a symplectic potential that is covariant and stationary, i.e satisfying the Wald-Zoupas usual requirements. In this talk I will consider a new asymptotic symmetry group, which is a one dimensional extension of the generalized-BMS group, and construct a stationary symplectic potential, covariant with respect to these symmetries, by adding corner terms to the usual Einstein-Hilbert symplectic potential. Then, we will recover the charges introduced by Compère, Fiorucci and Ruzziconi for superboosts and superrotations. In order to ensure covariance, we will need to introduce an edge mode which has already appeared in the literature, the supertranslation field. I will also explain that its introduction as a corner term can lead us to construct a local (asymptotic) notion of energy for the gravitational waves, providing a physical interpretation of the new charges.