I will present a galaxy formation model within the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) framework that is calibrated on the results of galaxy formation simulations and some of the empirical properties of nearby dwarf galaxies. I will then use the model to interpret a number of ostensible challenges to the LCDM framework, such as the "too-big-too-fail problem", "central density problem" and the "planes of satellites" problem and will argue that none of these pose a serious challenge to LCDM, as the corresponding observations can be largely understood within the current galaxy formation modeling. I will also show that the same galaxy formation model can explain the abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z>5 measured by the Hubble Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope recently, if the expected increase of burstiness of star formation in galaxies towards early epochs is taken into account.
Quantum position verification (QPV) was first introduced, under the name quantum tagging, in a patent filed in 2004. It was first discussed in the academic literature in 2009-10. The schemes proposed to that point were shown to be breakable by teleportation attacks in 2010, and a general no-go theorem showing all schemes in this class are breakable was subsequently proved. However, in an alternative standard cryptographic security scenario, in which the tag is assumed to be able to keep classical data secret, unconditionally secure schemes were presented in 2010.
The various terminologies and security scenarios highlight important points whose theoretical and practical implications still remain underexplored. In practice, one normally wants to verify the location of a person or valuable object, not of an easily replaceable tagging device, for at least two reasons: (i) the device itself is not so valuable, (ii) adversaries can easily construct a replacement device and thereby potentially spoof the scheme. This requires physical assumptions about the integrity of the tag and its attachment, and bounds on the speed with which the tag may be displaced or destroyed and replaced. QPV schemes that do not rely on such assumptions are breakable without teleportation or non-local computation attacks. In the other direction, when such significant physical assumptions are necessary, it may generally be reasonable to include tag security among them.
In this overview I review the early history of QPV and describe various security scenarios and their potential applications. I give versions of the secure 2010 scheme designed for efficient practical implementation and discuss the frequency, accuracy and security of position verification attainable for these schemes with present technology. I also discuss the implied constraints on what may be attainable for QPV schemes involving real-time quantum measurement and/or quantum information processing.
With the main purpose of identifying the existence of gravitational radiation at infinity (scri), a novel approach to the asymptotic structure of spacetime is presented, focusing mainly in cases with non-negative cosmological constant. The basic idea is to consider the strength of tidal forces experienced by scri. To that end I will introduce the asymptotic (radiant) super-momentum, a causal vector defined at scri with remarkable properties that, in particular, provides an innovative characterization of gravitational radiation valid for the general case with Λ ≥ 0 (and which has been proven to be equivalent when Λ = 0 to the standard one based on the News tensor). This analysis is also shown to be supported by the initial- (or final-) value Cauchy-type problem defined at scri. The implications are discussed in some detail. The geometric structure of scri, and of its cuts, is clarified. The question of whether or not a News tensor can be defined in the presence of a positive cosmological constant is addressed. Several definitions of asymptotic symmetries are presented. Conserved charges that may detect gravitational radiation are exhibited. Balance laws that might be useful as diagnostic tools to test the accuracy of model waveforms discussed. An interpretation of the Geroch `rho' tensor is found. The whole thing will be complemented with a series of illustrative examples based on exact solutions. In particular we will see that exact solutions with black holes will be radiative if, and only if, they are accelerated.
Two major approaches are used when numerically solving the Einstein field equations. The first one is to use spatial Cauchy slices and treat the system as a standard Cauchy initial value problem. Cauchy-characteristic evolution (CCE) serves as the second approach, which evolves spacetime based on null hypersurfaces. The Cauchy formulation is suitable for the strong field region but is computationally expensive to extend to the wave zone, whereas the Characteristic approach is fast in the wave zone but fails near the binary system where the null surfaces are ill-defined. By combining those two techniques — simulating the inner region with Cauchy evolution and the outer region with CCE, Cauchy-Characteristic matching (CCM) enables us to take advantage of both methods. In this talk, I present our recent implementation of CCM based on a numerical relativity code SpECTRE. I also discuss how CCM improves the accuracy of Cauchy boundary conditions — a benefit that allows us to evolve less of the wave zone in the Cauchy code without losing precision.
In this talk, I will consider the centralizer of the quantum group U_q(sl_2) in the tensor product of three identical spin representations. The case of spin 1/2 (fundamental representation) is understood within the framework of the Schur-Weyl duality for U_q(sl_N), and the centralizer is known to be isomorphic to a Temperley-Lieb algebra. The case of spin 1 has also been studied and corresponds to the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebra. For a general spin, I will explain how to describe explicitly the centralizer (by generators and relations) using a combination of the braid group algebra and the Askey-Wilson algebra, which has been introduced in the context of orthogonal polynomials.