The presence of many competing classical ground states in frustrated magnets implies that quantum fluctuations may stabilize quantum spin liquids (QSL), which are characterized by fractionalized excitations and emergent gauge fields. A paradigmatic example is the U(1) Dirac spin liquid (DSL), which at low-energies is described by emergent quantum electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions (QED3), a strongly interacting field theory with conformal symmetry. While the DSL is believed to be intrinsically stable, its robustness against various other couplings has been largely unexplored and is a timely question, also given recent experiments on triangular-lattice rare-earth oxides. In this talk, using complementary perturbation theory and scaling arguments as well as results from numerical DMRG simulations, I will show that a symmetry-allowed coupling between (classical) finite-wavevector lattice distortions and monopole operators of the U(1) Dirac spin liquid generally induces a spin-Peierls instability towards a (confining) valence-bond solid state. Away from the limit of static distortions, I will argue that the phonon energy gap establishes a parameter regime where the spin liquid is expected to be stable.
With rapid progress in simulation of strongly interacting quantum Hamiltonians, the challenge in characterizing unknown phases becomes a bottleneck for scientific progress. We demonstrate that a Quantum-Classical hybrid approach (QuCl) of mining the projective snapshots with interpretable classical machine learning, can unveil new signatures of seemingly featureless quantum states. The Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice with bond-dependent frustrated interactions presents an ideal system to test QuCl. The model hosts a wealth of quantum spin liquid states: gapped and gapless Z2 spin liquids, and a chiral spin liquid (CSL) phase in a small external magnetic field. Recently, various simulations have found a new intermediate gapless phase (IGP), sandwiched between the CSL and a partially polarized phase, launching a debate over its elusive nature. We reveal signatures of phases in the model by contrasting two phases pairwise using an interpretable neural network, the correlator convolutional neural network (CCNN). We train the CCNN with a labeled collection of sampled projective measurements and reveal signatures of each phase through regularization path analysis. We show that QuCl reproduces known features of established spin liquid phases and ordered phases. Most significantly, we identify a signature motif of the field-induced IGP in the spin channel perpendicular to the field direction, which we interpret as a signature of Friedel oscillations of gapless spinons forming a Fermi surface. Our predictions can guide future experimental searches for U(1) spin liquids.
A tower is an infinite sequence of deloopings of symmetric monoidal ever-higher categories. Towers are places where extended functorial field theories take values. Towers are a "deeper" version of commutative rings (as opposed to "higher rings" aka E∞-spectra). Notably, towers have their own opinions about Galois theory, and think that usual Galois groups are merely shallow approximations of deeper homotopical objects. In this talk, I will describe some steps in the construction and calculation of the deeper Galois group of a characteristic-zero field. In particular, I'll explain a homotopical version of the Kummer description of abelian extensions. This is joint work in progress with David Reutter.
The event horizon of a dynamical black hole is generically a non-smooth hypersurface. I shall describe the types of non-smooth structure that can arise on a horizon that is smooth at late time. This includes creases, corners and caustic points. I shall discuss ``perestroikas'' of these structures, in which they undergo a qualitative change at an instant of time. A crease perestroika gives an exact local description of the event horizon near the ``instant of merger'' of a generic black hole merger. Other crease perestroikas describe horizon nucleation or collapse of a hole in a toroidal horizon. I shall discuss the possibility that creases contribute to black hole entropy, and the implications of non-smoothness for higher derivative terms in black hole entropy. This talk is based on joint work with Maxime Gadioux.